Friday, April 22, 2016

AP/ Honors Criteria

AP Biology
1. Complete web-labs
2. Complete Lab Reports
3. Complete RW Student Study Guide assignments Using New College Board Text: AP Biology 8th Edition Campbell and Reece 2008. Pearson/ Cummings
4. Use Text Online Resource
5. Purchase and use of an AP study guide is recommended
6. See teacher for Study Island user name and password
7. Use Hippocampus resource
8. Must take AP exam to earn an "A" with a "3" or better

AP Calculus AB

1. Must take AP exam to earn an "A" with a "3" or better
2. Text: Calculus of a Single Variable 7th ed + Solution Manual I and II
3. Use Hippocampus text correlated lectures
4. ALEKS online Exam Prep
5. See teacher for user name and password
* Purchase and use of an AP study guide is recommended
* http://www.khanacademy.org/
6. See teacher for Study Island log in.



AP Literature and Composition 12th Grade

• Complete Discussion Boards
• Complete RW Assignments: HS - PS Literature and Composition - Bedford St. Martins (2011) and TE.
• Must take AP exam to earn an "A" with a "3' or better
• Purchase and use of an AP study guide is recommended
• See teacher for Study Island user name and password
• Complete literature notebook on the following works:


Major Works of Fiction - Students are responsible for the following major works of fiction, largely read independently. As they read, students are required to complete a journal noting the author’s use of rhetorical devices and their effects, becoming more aware of each writer’s techniques. This journal / notebook should include quotes, analysis, and questions for class discussion.
Texts: Various publishers and editions unless noted otherwise
All the King’s Men (Robert Penn Warren)
Arms and the Man or Pygmalion (George Bernard Shaw)
Hamlet (William Shakespeare)
Heart of Darkness (Joseph Conrad)
The Importance of Being Earnest (Oscar Wilde)
Jane Eyre (Charlotte Brontë)
The Mayor of Casterbridge (Thomas Hardy)
Much Ado About Nothing (William Shakespeare)
Arp, Thomas R. and Greg Johnson, eds. Perrine’s Sound and Sense: An Introduction to Poetry. 10th ed. U.S.: Thomson, Heinle, 2002.
Brooks, Cleanth and Robert Penn Warren, eds. Understanding Poetry. 4th ed. NY: Holt, Reinhart & Winston, 1976.

Students will also review American literature covered in their 11th grade language arts class for use on the Free Response section of the AP Eng. Lit exam and for comparison in class discussions and in prepared papers. The major works include
The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (Mark Twain)
Catcher in the Rye (J. D. Salinger)
The Color Purple (Alice Walker) or The Joy Luck Club (Amy Tan)
The Crucible (Arthur Miller) or The Scarlet Letter (Nathaniel Hawthorne)
The Great Gatsby (F. Scott Fitzgerald)
“Why We Must Wait” (Martin Luther King, Jr.)

AP Language and Composition 11th Grade

AP Language and Composition 2nd edition
• Complete Discussion Boards
• Complete RW Assignments:
HS - PS The Language of Composition - Bedford St. Martins (2008) and TE
• Must take AP exam to earn an "A" with a "3" or better
• Purchase and use of an AP study guide is recommended
• See teacher for Study Island user name and password
• Complete Analysis Notebook on the following major works of fiction:Notebook



Major Works of Fiction - Students are responsible for the following major works of fiction, largely read independently. As they read, students are required to complete a journal noting the author’s use of literary devices and rhetorical devices and their effects, becoming more aware of each writer’s techniques. This journal / notebook should include quotes, analysis, and questions for discussion.

1st Quarter: The Crucible (Miller)
The Scarlet Letter (Hawthorne)
2nd Quarter: The Color Purple (Walker)
The Great Gatsby (Fitzgerald)
3rd Quarter: The Joy Luck Club (Tan)
Huckleberry Finn (Twain)
4th Quarter: The Catcher in the Rye (Salinger)
"Why We Must Wait" (Martin Luther King Jr.)

AP Statistics
1. Must take AP exam to earn an "A" with a "3" or better
2. Purchase and use of an AP study guide is recommended
3. Use Hippocampus resource- http://www.hippocampus.org/myHippo/?user=lbegin
4. ALEKS online-See teacher for user name and password
5. Complete RW assignments using- Text: The Practice of Statistics, TI Graphing Calculator Enhanced. Daniel Yates, David Moore, and George McCabe. W.H. Freeman and Co.. 1999.
6. Text website resource: http://www.larsoncalculus.com/calc10/



Honors World History

• In addition to your regular assignments, please compose a notebook of the following:
• Complete Chapter Activities including:
• Living History
• Connect to Today
• Interpreting a Timeline
• Research Project

Honors Algebra


• Complete Aleks with 90% or better
• Complete Honors RW lessons

Honors Geometry


• Complete Aleks with 90% or better
• Complete Honors RW lessons


Honors Language Arts
• Complete regular assignments
• Complete a literature notebook using core literature
• Complete Discussion Boards
• Complete projects/ research as assigned by instructor
• Score 90% or better on midterm and final

Friday, April 15, 2016

AP Biology Midterm Review

Use this midterm review along with your final to prepare for the AP exam. Review all AP Bio Labs from the link and complete AP Study Island


Complete the following and submit prior to the midterm to earn up to 10 extra credit points.


INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGY UNIT
1) The units that are the smallest units on the metric rulers are called:
2) Place the following in order from largest to smallest:
a. Centimeter, millimeter, meter, kilometer
3) The number of grams in a kilogram is __________.
4) A statement that is testable in science is called a/an:
5) Statements that are always true in nature are called:
6) Define theory and give examples of two theories in science.
7) What is the metric abbreviation for gram?
8) What is the metric abbreviation for millimeter?
9) On which axis of a graph should the independent variable be placed?
10) A variable that is changed in an experiment is called the _____________ variable.
11) Name three characteristics of ALL living things.
12) List the six general areas of Biology we will study throughout the academic year and define each term.
13) The universal genetic code that all living things share is called ________.
14) A signal to which an organism responds is called a/an _______________.
15) All living things maintain a balance within their cells and their environment through a process called:
16) List the steps of the scientific method in order according to your textbook.
17) In order to properly conduct a scientific experiment one group should not be exposed to the independent variable. This group is called the _____________ group.
18) The smallest unit of life is called the _________.

CHEMISTRY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
19) The smallest unit of matter is called the ____________.
20) Draw a model of a carbon atom and label the name of the element, the nucleus, the protons, neutrons, and the electrons (in energy levels).
21) The only subatomic particle that is involved in forming bonds is the _____________.
22) The number of natural elements on and around the earth is ________.
23) The most reactive elements on the periodic table are located:
24) The modern periodic table was first devised by:
25) The number of neutrons in a nitrogen atom is:
26) The number of valence electrons in a sodium atom is:
27) The chemical symbol for phosphorus is:
28) The atomic mass of oxygen is:
29) The atomic mass of an atom represents the total number of:
30) The four most common elements in living things are:
31) The number of bonds an oxygen atom forms with other atoms is:
32) How much of the mass of the atoms is concentrated in the nucleus?
33) If the number of neutrons varies in atoms of the same element a/an ___________ is formed.
34) The vertical columns of the periodic table are called:
35) A bond that forms between a metal and a non-metal is called a/an ___________ bond.
36) A bond that involves a transfer of electrons is called a/an __________ bond.
37) A bond that involves a sharing of electrons is called a/an ____________ bond.
38) What type of bond connects one water molecule to another?
39) What type of bond occurs WITHIN the hydrogen and oxygen atoms of a water molecule?
40) Write the molecular formula for a water molecule.
41) Draw the structural formula for a water molecule. Explain why it is a polar molecule.
42) How many water molecules can be connected to one water molecule?
43) State three properties of water and give an example of how the property contributes to the diversity of life on earth.
44) What does pH measure?
45) An acid has a pH between numbers: A base has a pH between numbers:
46) If you drink a glass of lemonade that you prepared in your kitchen, what is the solute? the solvent? the solution?
47) The field of organic chemistry revolves around molecules and compounds based on the element:
48) Name the four major macromolecules that comprise living things.
49) What are the elements in carbohydrates and in what ratio do they appear?
50) Give examples of monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. Name and identify each one.
51) A polysaccharide is long chain of monosaccharide molecules. What type of reaction forms each bond? What type of reaction breaks down the polysaccharide in the digestion process?
52) What is the chemical test for monosaccharides? For polysaccharides?
53) Amylase is an enzyme found in your saliva that breaks down _______________ to ___________.
54) What are the monomers of proteins?
55) Each amino acid has two basic parts called:
56) What type of bond connects the amino acids to each other?
57) List three roles of proteins in living things.
58) Proteins have the element ______________ that you would NEVER find in a carbohydrate or lipid.
59) Waxes, fats, and oils are listed under the category of macromolecules called:
60) How would you identify a saturated fat versus an unsaturated fat?
61) What are two roles of fat in the human body?
62) Write the chemical equation for photosynthesis and identify each of the molecules that serve as reactants and products.
63) How many oxygen atoms are required for the reaction to take place?
64) What are enzymes and how are they important to living things?
65) What is term used to describe the energy that is needed to get a reaction started?
66) Which part of an enzyme comes into contact with the substrate?
67) When the enzyme lactase reacts with the disaccharide lactose, what are the monosaccharides that are formed as products?
68) Describe the role of the enzyme-substrate complex.

CELL AND CELL MEMBRANE
69) The first person who describe living creatures in pond water under a microscope was:
70) The person who named the cell was:
71) Under low power the number on the objective is:
72) To regulate the amount of light that comes through the stage a student should adjust the ___________.
73) What does the Golgi apparatus do?
74) What are the roles of the smooth and rough endoplasmic reticuli?
75) In order to view most of the organelles what type of microscope is required?
76) What are the three parts of cell theory?
77) Describe the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
78) Prokaryotic cells are more commonly known as:
79) What is the role of the lysosome?
80) ATP is made in the ___________________. ATP is used for:
81) What are two of the protein filaments that construct the cytoskeleton and what are their roles?
82) Draw a model of the cell membrane and label the phospholipids, transport proteins, and carbohydrates.
83) What types of molecules pass through the cell membrane most easily?
84) Molecules diffuse from _________________ concentration to _____________ concentration.
85) If no concentration gradient exists a condition called _______________ exists.
86) Name and describe two types of passive transport.
87) Name and describe two types of active transport.
88) If a cell is placed in solution and water exits the cell you would say that the solution is___________ to the cell and the size of the cell should ___________.
89) Fresh fruits and vegetables in a grocery store that are periodically sprayed with water exhibit ____________ pressure since their central vacuoles are filled.
90) What organelle in plant cells prevents them from bursting when placed in hypotonic solutions?
91) Water molecules will ALWAYS move towards hypotonic/isotonic/hypertonic solutions. List the correct answer.
92) Define facilitated diffusion and give an example of where it occurs in the human body.

PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND CELLULAR RESPIRATION
93) What are the two major sets of reactions of photosynthesis and in what part of the chloroplast do they occur?
94) In terms of wavelengths of light, explain why most plants look green.
95) What are the roles of accessory pigments? Give an example of one.
96) What are the products of the light-dependent reactions?
97) At the end of the Calvin Cycle what molecule is produced?
98) Describe how ATP is formed within the chloroplast including the role of ATP synthase, hydrogen ions, and the electron transport chain.
99) Write the equation for cellular respiration and identify the reactants and products.
100) What are the two major sets of reactions of cellular respiration and in what part of the mitochondrion do they occur?
101) What are the products of glycolysis?
102) Glycolysis does not require oxygen so it is a/an ____________ process.
103) Differentiate between lactic acid fermentation and alcoholic fermentation.
104) If oxygen is available to cells and glycolysis has already taken place what process occurs?
105) What is the role of the electron transport chain?
106) How many ATP molecules are produced from one glucose molecule?


CELL CYCLE

107) Give two reasons why cells divide.
108) Name two places in your body where the cell cycle occur often and two places where it rarely, if ever, occurs.
109) List the stages of the cell cycle in sequence starting with interphase and a one or two sentence description of each stage.
110) Describe three major events that occur in interphase.
111) What phase of the cell cycle would you expect to see most often and why?
112) Draw a replicated chromosome and label the centromere and a chromatid.
113) What are two differences between the cell cycle in animal cells versus plant cells?
114) The number of chromosomes in human cells at the end of the cell cycle would be ________. How similar would these cells be to the parent cell?



DNA AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

115) The two men who discovered that DNA was a double helix were:
116) How did Hershey and Chase conclude that DNA, and not protein, was the genetic material involved in inheritance of traits?
117) List the four nitrogenous bases and how they pair with one another.
118) What are the components of a nucleotide?
119) What was the contribution of Rosalind Franklin to the discovery of the shape of the DNA molecule? Why didn’t she receive part of the Nobel Prize?
120) The amount of DNA in a human cell is approximately _______ feet.
121) The number of chromosomes in a somatic cell of a human is ________ where as the number of genes in a somatic human cell is approximately:
122) For what reason would a geneticist analyze a karyotype?
123) What is meant by the term homologous chromosomes?
124) What two procedures can a pregnant woman have performed in order for a geneticist make a karyotype?
125) Name and describe one genetic disorder that could be identified by analyzing a karyotype.
126) Your dog has a diploid number of 78, so he would have ______ (a number) of chromosomes in his skin cells and ________ (a number) in his sperm cells.
127) In somatic cells of a human the number of autosomes is _______ and the number of sex chromosomes is ___________.
128) What large-scale project started in 1990 aimed to identify all of the genes in human cells?
129) During DNA replication, what are the roles of DNA helicase and DNA polymerase?
130) If one side of the double helix reads, A-T-G-C, what are the complementary bases on mRNA?
131) Distinguish between a point mutation and a frameshift mutation and explain why some mutations are neutral.
132) Describe three ways in which RNA differs from DNA.
133) Describe three types of RNA and their roles in the cell.
134) What are the roles of the promoter and RNA polymerase in transcription?
135) What occurs during RNA editing?
136) What is a codon and on what type of RNA is it found?
137) The building blocks of proteins are called ___________ __________ and they are connected together by:
138) What is the role of the ribosome?


MEIOSIS


139) Name two major ways that cells produced by meiosis differ from those produced by mitosis.
140) How many sperm are produced via spermatogenesis? How many ova are produced by oogenesis?
141) What occurs during crossing over? What is the evolutionary benefit of this process to various species?
142) Meiosis I reduces the amount of genetic material by _________%. Meiosis II reduces the amount of genetic material by _________ %.
143) Where does fertilization of the egg occur? When this occurs a/an _________ is formed which develops into a/an ____________.
144) In addition to ova, what else is formed at the end of oogenesis?





GENETICS

145) For most human traits, each parent contributes _________ (a number) gene(s).
146) Using a Punnett Square, show the inheritance of Widow’s Peak (W) when one parent has an allele and the other parent has no alleles.
147) A man marries a woman who is a carrier for cystic fibrosis but does not have the disease. What percent of their children will also be carriers? Show your work with a Punnett Square.
148) From an evolutionary perspective, why has the allele for sickle cell anemia (s) stayed in the human gene pool despite the fact that there is no advantage to having it?
149) Explain how sickle cell trait is an example of incomplete dominance.
150) Explain using a labeled diagram of a neuron what occurs in a patient afflicted with Tay-Sachs Disease.
151) Using a Punnett Square show the inheritance of Huntington Disease (H) by one child when one of his or her parents has an allele.
152) Give two examples of human traits that are the result of polygenic inheritance.
153) In horses, B = Black coat, b = brown coat, T = trotter, and t = pacer. A black trotter that has a brown pacer offspring has which of the following genotypes? A. BT B. BbTt C. bbtt D. BBtt
Show your work with a Punnett Square.
154) If Mendel crosses two pea plants that were heterozygous for yellow seed color, what is the probability of getting yellow seeds homozygous for color? Show your work with a Punnett Square.
155) Using a Punnett Square, show the inheritance of colorblindness by a human male when his father has normal color vision and his mother is a carrier for colorblindness.
156) Can a man with hemophilia and his wife with no genes for hemophilia have any kids without the disease? Show your work with a Punnett Square.
157) If a man has bloodtype A and his wife has bloodtype B, what are the possible bloodtypes of the children?
158) What is RhoGAM and when is it used?
159) The universal donor for blood donations is:
160) Describe an individual who has Klinefelter’s Syndrome, including the chromosomal abnormality.

AP Biology Final Review

Complete the following study guide to earn up to 10 extra credit points. Must be turned in prior to final exam.

Ecology:
1) List the levels of organization that ecologists use from largest to smallest.
2) What is the original source of energy in most ecosystems?
3) From the following food chain, identify the producer, herbivore, carnivore, 1st level consumer, 2nd level consumer, & 3rd level consumer.
Grassàgrasshopperàfrogàsnakeàhawkà
4) In the above food chain, what level consumer is the snake?
5) What is the original source of energy in most ecosystems?
6) In what ways are plants on a sunny mountain meadow & sulfur-bacteria in a deep-sea volcanic vent alike? Different?
7) A tiger stalks, kills, & then eats a gazelle. Based on its behavior, what ecological TERMS describe the tiger?
8) What is meant by the 10% rule?
9) What is recycled in the biosphere?
10) What processes cycle carbon through the biosphere?
11) How is carbon stored in the biosphere?
12) What organisms play a role in the nitrogen cycle?
13) Different species can share the same habitat, how can competition be reduced between these species?
14) Explain the symbiotic relationship between a flower & the insect that feeds on its nectar.
15) How can a predator increase the numbers of certain species in its habitat?
16) What can cause primary succession?
17) What is one difference between primary and secondary succession?
18) List three factors that play a role in population growth.
19) List three limiting factors to a large, dense population.
20) How can a diagram of a population’s age structure predict how it can grow?
21) What is the most important source of environmental change on Earth?
22) Refer to the energy pyramid on page 72 in your textbook; be able to answer questions regarding the loss of energy as you move up the pyramid.
23) Refer to the food web on page 71 in your textbook, be able to answer questions regarding number of steps away from the sun an organism is, & how many trophic levels there are in the web.
24) Refer to exponential growth curve on page 121 & logistic growth curve on page 122 in your textbook, be able to recognize which graph is which, read these graphs and answer questions regarding the data shown.
25) Give examples of mutualism, parasitism & commensalism.
26) What is the difference between density-dependent limiting factors and density-independent limiting factors?
27) Would you receive more energy from corn by eating it directly or by eating the same mass of beef from a cow that has been fed on corn? Explain.
Evolution
28) What did Darwin’s travels reveal to him about the number of variety of living species?
29) How did tortoises and birds differ among the islands of the Galapagos?
30) Why was Hutton & Lyell’s work important to Darwin?
31) What is a major concept in Lamarck’s theory of evolution?
32) Why was Darwin prompted to publish his theory of evolution?
33) Darwin’s observation that finches of different species on the Galapagos Islands have many similar physical characteristics supports what hypothesis about the finches?
34) According to Darwin’s theory of natural selection, individuals who survive are the ones best adapted for their environment. What is their survival due to?
35) When lions prey on a herd of antelopes, some antelopes are killed and some escape. Which part of Darwin’s concept of natural selection describes this situation?
36) Members of a population that live long enough to reproduce is consistent with which part of the theory of natural selection?
37) Modern sea star larvae resemble some primitive vertebrate larvae. What does this suggest about the primitive vertebrates?
38) What influenced Darwin’s development of his concept of evolution? Did he know anything about DNA?
39) Who proposed the hypothesis that species change over time by natural selection?
40) Pelvic bones in whales and the coccyx in humans are examples of what structures?
41) List the two major concepts that are included in the modern theory of evolution.
42) Give several examples of homologous organs.
43) What is a phrase that defines evolution by natural selection?
44) What are the two main sources of genetic variation?
45) Can a polygenic trait have many genotypes? Many phenotypes?
46) In a population of finches, one group has a short, parrot-like beak & another group has a long, narrow beak, what process has occurred?
47) Give an example of geographic isolation.
48) Refer to figure 17-25 on page 439 of your textbook. How did the overall body size of the horse change during its evolution?
49) American toads breed earlier in the spring than Fowler toads do, although they live in the same habitat. What can be inferred from this information?
50) Give an example of speciation.
51) Natural selection on beak size and shape is driven by available food in the Galapagos finches. What does this statement infer?
52) The process by which two species, like a flower and a pollinating insect, evolve in response to changes in each other over time is called?
53) Refer to figure 15-3 on page 371 of your textbook. Which tortoise has the longest neck?
54) Refer to figure 16-6, 16-7 & 16-8 on pages 398 & 399 of your textbook. In figure 16-6 what happened to beak size? In figure 16-7 what is happening? In figure 16-8, what is happening to the bird beak fitness?
55) Refer to figure 17-8 on page 424 of your textbook. What do the electrodes produce and what does that simulate?
56) Define mutation and describe one situation in which a point mutation—the alteration of a single nucleotide—would affect an organism’s phenotype & another situation in which a point mutation would not affect the phenotype.
Physiology
57) Be able to trace a red blood cell from the right atrium of the heart through the body and to its return to the right atrium. Be sure to include the valves that are included in the pathway.
58) What is meant by a closed circulatory system?
59) Why do we have a circulatory system?
60) What is the function of coronary arteries?
61) What is the function of the valves of the circulatory system?
62) What is the name of the heart’s pacemaker and where is it located?
63) What is meant by systolic pressure? Diastolic pressure?
64) What is the difference between pulmonary circulation and systemic circulation?
65) Be able to label the structures of the heart similar to the picture on page 944.
66) Be able to trace a molecule of oxygen from the time it enters the mouth to the time it exits the nose. Include all of the structures through which it will pass.
67) What is the function of the cilia and mucus in the respiratory system?
68) What is the function of the epiglottis?
69) The actual exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs in the ________________ of the lungs.
70) The muscle that lies below the chest cavity that mammals have which aids in respiration is called the __________________.
71) Which part of the brain controls breathing?
72) Be able to label the structures of the respiratory system similar to the picture on page 957.
73) What is meant by essential amino acids?
74) Where does the process of chemical digestion begin?
75) What does mechanical digestion in the stomach involve?
76) What digestive system organ extracts water from digested food?
77) What does the enzyme amylase do?
78) What is peristalsis?
79) What are the functions of the cardiac valve (sphincter) and pyloric valve (sphincter)
80) What enzyme functions in the stomach?
81) What does the hydrochloric acid in the stomach do?
82) List three substances secreted by the pancreas and their functions.
83) In what part of the digestive system does most digestion take place?
84) Name three enzymes that function in the small intestine and their roles.
85) Name two functions of the liver.
86) What is the role of the villi in the small intestine?
87) Be able to label the organs in the digestive system as pictured on page 979.
88) Define the term hormone.
89) What is meant by a target cell?
90) What glands compose the endocrine system?
91) During feedback inhibition, an increase in a substance will do what to the original stimulus?
92) What gland produces epinephrine and norepinephrine?
93) What is the difference in which steroid hormones and nonsteroid hormones enter cells?
94) What is the role of the thyroid gland?
95) List nine hormones secreted by the pituitary gland and their functions.
96) Estrogen and progesterone are produced by the ______________.
97) The parathyroid hormone controls the levels of _______________ in the blood.
98) The pituitary gland is controlled by the ________________ of the brain.
99) What is the difference between Type I and Type II diabetes?
100) What are the roles of FSH and LH?
101) In what part of the testes are sperm produced?
102) Where do the sperm mature?
103) Prior to entering the urethra during ejaculation, through what tube do the sperm pass?
104) What is the role of the prostate gland?
105) Where does fertilization of the egg occur?
106) The embryo develops in the _____________.
107) The average woman can get pregnant only ______ days a month. This is most likely to occur immediately after ______________.
108) The mucus that accumulates on the _____________ may block entry of the sperm into the vagina.
109) What occurs during the follicle phase of the menstrual cycle? How long does it last?
110) What occurs during the luteal phase and how long does it last?
111) What causes menstruation to begin?
112) Be able to label the structure in the endocrine system as pictured on page 998.
113) Which hormones maintain the lining of the uterus in anticipation of a fertilized egg?
114) How do antibiotics fight infections?
115) What is one advantage of a fever?
116) What are the body’s nonspecific defenses against invading pathogens?
117) What is the body’s most important nonspecific defense?
118) Unlike passive immunity, how are active immunity antibodies produced?
119) What triggers an immune response?
120) Explain three ways HIV can be spread.
121) In what three ways does the protease cocktail taken by AIDS patients interrupt the replication of the virus?
122) What is the difference between cell-mediated immunity and humoral immunity?
123) How many binding sites does a typical antibody have?
124) How did Edward Jenner develop the first vaccine?
125) Explain the role of memory cells in response to a second exposure to an antigen.
126) Refer to figure 35-5 on page 897 of your textbook. Be able to label the neuron parts and list their functions.
127) Discuss how an action potential works in a neuron including the ions involved, the directions in which they move, and the changes in charge inside and outside the neuron.
128) What occurs at the synapse? Discuss the role of calcium ions, neurotransmitters, and how active transport is involved.
129) Refer to figure 35-9 on page 901 of your textbook. Be able to label the brain. Which two parts of the brain act as neural “switchboards,” regulating the flow of information between the brain and the rest of the body?
130) What is the difference between white matter and gray matter?
131) List the four divisions of the peripheral nervous system and their functions.

CELL CYCLE, GENETICS, MEIOSIS:
You Should Know the definitions AND APPLICATION of the following terms:

genotype
phenotype
homozygous
heterozygous
purebred
hybrid
Punnett Square
Mendel (who he was)
Dominant
Recessive
Allele
Gene
Trait
Centriole
Spindle fibers
Centromere
Chromosome
Chromatid
Chromatin
Cytokinesis
Gamete
Homologous chromosome
Haploid versus diploid cells
Tetrad
Crossing over
Nucleotide
P Generation
F Generation

Dihybrid Cross
Monohybrid Cross
Karyotype
Amniocentesis
Chorionic villus sampling/biopsy
RhoGAM
Rh Factor
Spermatogenesis
Spermatocyte
Oogenesis
Oocyte
Polar Body
Polygenic traits


You should know:

• The difference between ratio, probability, and percent (for Punnett Squares)
• How to set up and solve Punnett Squares such
• The descriptions of the diseases/disorders we discussed in class and their patterns of inheritance:
Huntington Disease, Cystic Fibrosis, Tay-Sachs Disease, Sickle Cell Anemia, Colorblindness,
Hemophilia, Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
• The law of segregation and the law of independent assortment
• The stages of the cell cycle in the correct order and what happens in each
• That the new cells produced as a result of a mitotic division are identical to the parental cells
• That the new cells produced as a result of a meiotic division are not identical to each other or the parent cells
• How to identify cells in each of the stages of mitosis (the pictures in the book and online are very good)
• Places where cell division occurs often (see p. 249)
• Differences between plant and animal mitosis
• the type of cells produced by meiosis
• The phases of meiosis in the correct order and what happens in each
• The major differences between meiosis and mitosis
• What nondisjunction is.
• The characteristics of a Down Syndrome Child, Turner Syndrome Child, and a Klinefelter’s Child and their karyotypes
• What an antigen is in relation to bloodtyping
• The phenotypes and genotypes of the blood groups
• What blood groups can donate to the others
• What RhoGAM is and when it is administered
You Should Know:
Evolution:
1. The taxa in sequence. ..domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order . ..
2. Complete classification of the human Ex: Domain – Eukarya Kingdom – Animalia Phylum – Chordata, etc
3. The scientific name of the human and be able to properly write it – Homo sapiens (capital, lower case, underlined)
4. Examples of vestigial organs in humans
5. Characteristics and examples of the major groups of primates and their relationships to one another on the evolutionary tree (prosimians, anthropoids, etc)
6. The answers to the FAQs about evolution –
Ex: Are humans descendants of apes/monkeys?
7. Evidence of evolution
8. How speciation occurs/requirements for speciation to occur
9. Examples of speciation
10. Darwin’s five major points of natural selection
11. how to describe Darwin’s other theory – descent with modification
12. How to make a cladogram using major characteristics of vertebrates – this was a class activity
13. Characteristics of organisms in the Phylum Chordata
14. Characteristics, anatomical structure, and examples of the Class Amphibia
15. Characteristics, anatomical structure, and examples of the Class Reptilia
16. Characteristics, anatomical structure, and examples of the Class Mammalia
17. The three major groups of mammals (at the Order level) and examples of each
18. The difference between anterior/posterior/dorsal/ventral sides of an organism
19. Evolutionary order of the major groups of vertebrates (geologic timeline and pacing geologic time); Age of the Earth; Age of the Oldest Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells on Earth
20. The type of rock used in relative dating of fossils
21. how radioactive dating works (the half life lab and class notes)
22. Who Charles Darwin was and his contributions to evolutionary biology
23. Who Alfred Wallace was and his contribution to evolutionary biology
24. Who Lamarck was and his contribution to evolutionary biology
25. Who Lyell was and his contribution to evolutionary biology
26. Who Hutton was and his contribution to evolutionary biology
27. What adaptive radiation/divergent evolution is
28. What convergent evolution is
29. The age of the earth, the age of the first prokaryotes, and the age of the first eukaryotes
30. The 3 requirements to be in the same species
Physiology:
31. how to label a diagram of the human heart
32. the path of blood flow throughout the body and the functions of the anatomical structures through which the blood flows
33. what the “pacemaker” of the heart is
34. the difference between pulmonary and systemic circulation
35. the path of air flow from the mouth to the lungs and all of the structures through which the air will pass
36. where gases are exchanged in the lungs (and what gases are exchanged)
37. the path that food takes from the mouth to the rectum and the organs through which it passes. You should be familiar with the digestive enzymes and other substances that are added to food as it passes through the digestive tract and from which organs those substances originate.
38. The roles of amylase, pepsin, trypsin, NaHCO3, bile, lipase, protease, and HCl in digestion (see the chart on page 981)
39. The role of villi in the small intestine.
40. the parts of the brain and their functions; the sheep brain lab should help
41. the difference between the peripheral and central nervous system
42. The difference between the somatic and autonomic nervous systems
43. The difference between the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems.
44. the path of an impulse from the surface of the body to the brain and back
45. how a reflex differs from a normal response to a stimulus
46. the structure of a neuron and the functions of the various parts of a neuron
47. what happens during an action potential in terms of ion movement across the cell membrane – the computer lab activity we did should be helpful
48. what is meant by feedback inhibition
49. what occurs at a synapse when an action potential arrives there and the role of neurotransmitters
50. how the interaction between a hormone and a target cell occurs
51. the endocrine hormones and their functions (page 1004 has a good chart)
52. the structure of the male reproductive anatomy and the functions of those parts
53. the structure of the female reproductive anatomy and the functions of those parts
54. the four major hormones involved in the female menstrual cycle, how they interact with one another, the cause of ovulation, and the cause of menstruation
55. the names of the four fluids which can transmit the virus that causes AIDS (HIV)
56. a description of the three lines of defense in the immune system
57. what T cells, B cells, and memory cells are in terms of their roles in the immune system
58. how an antibody is structured and its function in relation to antigens
Ecology:
59. the levels of organization in the biosphere and their definitions Ex: population, community, etc
60. what a trophic level is and why there is a limit to the number of trophic levels in an ecosystem
61. How energy flows through an ecosystem
62. How much energy is transferred from one trophic level to another
63. what a food chain is and what a food web is
64. definitions of the following: carnivore, herbivore, omnivore, detritivore, decomposer
65. the three types of symbiotic relationships and examples of each
66. how the cycles of matter (biogeochemical cycles) operate Ex: water cycle, carbon cycle



Courtesy of T. Freeman